Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system of the individual. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS refers to a set of symptoms and illnesses. It is one of the most widespread and incurable deficiency syndromes among humans across the world. HIV spreads through unprotected intercourse with a person infected with HIV. HIV can also be transmitted through transfusion of contaminated blood, from infected mother to child during breastfeeding and pregnancy, and due to sharing of contaminated needles and syringes. Some of the symptoms of HIV infection are swollen glands, headache, slight fever, fatigue, and muscle ache. At present, HIV infection can be treated by drugs that belong to classes such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), entry and fusion inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors (PIs). Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, and Prezista/Prezcobix are some of the key drugs available in the market for treating HIV/AIDS.
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According to a WHO report, by the end of 2015, the number of people infected by HIV, globally, stood at 36.7 million. The global HIV/AIDS drugs market is expanding significantly due to increasing prevalence of the disease. Rise in the incidence of unprotected sex has led to increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Increase in funding from government and private sectors for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in terms of reimbursement is projected to drive the market during the forecast period. Low rate of voluntary screening for the disease is a major restraint for the market. Awareness about diagnostic tests for HIV infection is extremely low in countries in Africa. Hence, companies are facing challenges in penetrating the market in the region. Moreover, several low- and middle-income countries depend on government grants for provision of rapid diagnostic tests in the event of an epidemic. Therefore, their direct reach to customers is weak in these countries. These factors hamper the market in the region.
The global HIV/AIDS drugs market can be segmented based on drug class, distribution channel, and region. In terms of drug class, the market can be categorized into nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), entry & fusion inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors (PIs), and combination class drugs. In terms of revenue, the combination class drugs segment held a significant share of the HIV/AIDS drug market in 2016. Atripla, Triumeq, and Truvada held a significant share of the market in 2016. In terms of distribution channel, the global HIV/AIDS drugs market can be classified into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, online pharmacies, and others. In terms of revenue, the hospital pharmacies segment held a significant share of the HIV/AIDS drugs market in 2016.
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In terms of region, the global HIV/AIDS drugs market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is the leading market for HIV/AIDS drugs. In terms of revenue, the U.S. holds a major share of the HIV/AIDS drugs market in North America. The market in Europe is expanding rapidly due to increase in the patient population in the region, especially in the U.K. and Germany. The market in Asia Pacific and Latin America is projected to expand significantly in the near future. Developing economies such as China and India are anticipated to contribute to growth of the market in Asia Pacific between 2017 and 2025, due to better health care infrastructure, economic growth, increase in the number of insurance payers, growth of the private health care sector, and increase in awareness among people in these countries.
Key players operating in the global HIV/AIDS drugs market are Gilead Sciences, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Merck & Co., Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., AbbVie Inc., Pfizer, Inc., Alexion Pharmaceuticals, and Shionogi.
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